Mahu(mixed-gender) について

Sex is to the Polynesians a very down to earth thing which need not be too much thought about and is certainly not repressed. Sometimes mother nature cannot make make up her mind whether to make a man or a woman. In Polynesia, transvestites in whom male and female are not clearly differentiated, either at the physical or the psychic level, are called the Mahu. – Tui Terrence Barrow.

One Mahu, or mixed-gender individual, in Hawaii might be found for every nine others, especially on the island of Moloka’i. ーCarol E. Robertson

The hermaphrodites – also referred to as Mahu – said to have landed at Waikiki were respected men; talented priests of healing and the hula. – Mary Kawena Pakui

Today, the Mahu can designate men and women who procreate and raise children, hermaphrodites with male genitals and noticeable breasts, women who dress and work as men, men who wear trousers as well as long hair and earrings, men who dress festively, women who present themselves fully as women but have same gender relationships, men and women who present themselves as sexually uninterested in both genders, men who who dress as women and seek additional ways to seem feminine, and men who undergo hormone treatments and those who eventually have their sex altered surgically.
Most Mahu of massive size who are involved in the hula tradition serve as teachers, drummers and chanters. Mixed-gender masters of the hula who have recieved acclaim are seen as role models by other mixed-gender individuals who might otherwise fear ridicule or rejection in some communities.ーCarol E. Robertson

どの社会でも、ホルモンのインバランスで男性と女性の間として見られる人たちがいる。ヨーロッパの昔のcastrato(男性ソプラノ歌手の中では)の中 では手術によって男性ホルモン(testosterone)が出ないようにした人もいたが、自然に男性ホルモンがあまりない人々がいる。女性のオリンピッ クの優勝した選手には、外見の身体は女性だが、身体の中は男性ホルモンの方が多いという人もいる。
10人の内一人はMahu(mixed-gender)、特にモロカイ島では、とCarol E. Robertsonが”Musicology and Difference”という本で書いた記事にあったが、現代ではかならずしも生まれつきそうだった人がMahuと呼ばれているわけではないと書いてあ る。
Wikipediaのcastratoのページでは、近年の有名なシンガーではJeff Buckleyが昔のcastratoに近い声を持っていると書いてある。
男性ホルモンが足りない人にとって良い事は、髪の毛や皮膚の状態が本当の年齢よりも若く見える人が多い事かもしれない。しかし、女性ホルモンが男性の身体 で多すぎると脂肪が付きやすくなる。脂肪がたくさん付いていて高い声がキレイに出る男性歌手は女性ホルモンの方が多いバランスになっている人かも知れな い。Carol E. Robertsonの文章では脂肪がたくさんついているMahu達の多くはフラの先生(マスター)、ドラマーや歌い手として働いていて、社会的に成功した 人達は他のMahu達にとってロール・モデルとして見られている。

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